Adoptions from India – Everything You wanted to Know


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Adoption is still a difficult issue in Indian communities - here three couples tell their stories about adoptiing children from India

Sangeeta Jain and Rajiv Garg with their four daughters

Some stories have so much power – and there’s such a need for them! I had done this in-depth story on adoption four years ago & I’m amazed readers who are looking to adopt come to it even today for information. So I thought I’d share it again and would love your input and personal experiences with the process of adopting children from India. I do intend to revisit this topic in the coming months and would love your insights.

Adoptions from India:

Indian-American Family Stories….

Check out a family photo of Rajiv and Sangeeta Garg and their happy family – four beautiful beaming daughters stand with their proud parents. All dressed for an event in festive Indian clothes, two of the sisters clasp hands while the littlest one grins impishly from her father’s arms.  It is a picture not unlike the ones many of us have in our family albums.

So what’s different about this particular image?

When Rajiv and Sangeeta were just in their 20’s and ready to start a family, they idealistically decided they would first adopt a child in need before they conceived one of their own.  Today looking at this close-knit family, you’d be hard-pressed to tell who the biological children are and who the adopted ones are. From a crowded orphanage in Mumbai to a loving home in Minneapolis, USA, it’s been a long journey but one taken by this couple with very happy results.

One of the ironies of life is that there are millions of children without homes, without families and there are millions of adults who wish to be parents but cannot.  Adoption is the process which can unite them, and yet it is still a loaded word for many Indian families.

For years there was a stigma attached to adoption, especially in Indian society. Adopting a child was reserved for couples who could not conceive a child of their own, often a secret undertaking and managed with a great deal of family resistance, and certainly little support.

In a country like India where so much value is placed on marriage, family values and fertility, it can be particularly difficult for a couple to be ‘barren’ – the word itself conveying emptiness and a joyless-ness. In India it can be feast or famine, where children are concerned. The orphanages are full of abandoned children waiting to be adopted; the streets are full of young runaways and waifs, without supportive parents or adults to turn to.

And on the other side you have thousands of couples, both in India and the Diaspora, who can’t conceive and yearn to have a child to nurture and love. Add to that thousands more who, in spite of having their own biological children, want to adopt children and have the time and resources to do so.  So shouldn’t this be the simplest thing in the world – placing abandoned children and prospective parents together to create new loving homes and giving children a future?

Adopting a Baby from India

The US State Department’s Bureau of Consular Affairs statistics shows that between 1999 -2010, 224,615 children were adopted from several countries. The total amount of children from India in this time frame was 4753, and of this the number of girls was 3383 and boys were 1370.

The number of adoptions from India seems to have been dipping over the years:  In 1999 the number was 472 – last year in 2010 it was just 241. One would think that this number would be escalating due to the larger Indian-American population and the needs of young couples to adopt.

Most people who have been through the adoption process talk as if they’ve been through the wringer – emotionally and financially – for adopting a child from India is like running a marathon through hoops and mazes.

How can one make sense of the procedures and bring about a quick happy ending? We spoke with several parents who have been through this tough process and asked them to share with us their stories  and their tips for doing it better and easier, avoiding the hassles and the potholes in the journey to becoming a new family.  Some of these stories are as old as 20 years – and some happened just this year. Each gives us insights into the process of adoption.

 Adopting from India: here three couples tell their stories about adopting children from India

Apoorva and Shreya Patel with baby Sanaya

Adoption Story: Rajiv Garg and Sangeeta Jain

Rajiv Garg and Sangeeta Jain, both children of Indian immigrants, grew up in Minneapolis and married at an early age, later settling in San Diego, CA. While Rajiv was working in the computer industry, Sangeeta pursued law and went on to become a district attorney. “Once we started our career paths, we wanted to have a family,” recalls Rajiv. “We had always a vision that we would adopt our first child – so we knew that was the path we would take. Our argument was that if we had our biological child first, the adopted one may not be as loved.”

Sangeeta, who is a judge in family law and child support, runs a nonprofit organization and has always been an advocate for women’s rights and the girl child. Rajiv was fully supportive, having four sisters of his own. They got a lot of resistance from the family who couldn’t understand why they wanted to adopt a child instead of having one of their own, and why they wanted to adopt a girl instead of a boy.

She says, “We were determined and just did it. Any time there are obstacles you have to ignore them to some degree. Adoption is a process in which both parents have to be on the same page – we were both excited to go on this journey together.”

So in their 20’s they stood before the judge in India and adopted their first child. Two years later they had their biological daughter. Six years later they adopted another daughter and then yet another daughter. People just could not understand why they kept adopting but the couple felt that there were enough children, especially girls, who needed a home. To adopt the third child, the entire family along with Sangeeta’s parents went down to India to celebrate the process.

There certainly have been ups and downs. Sonia, the second child they adopted had cerebral palsy, but with therapy she’s fine. The youngest one, Nira, was born with congenital heart disease and two holes in the heart. With medical care in the US, she is well and the holes have healed. All the children were adopted by the Gargs without seeing so much as a photo. As the couple says, “You never get to see your biological children before they are born, so why should you go shopping around for a child in that regard? Whatever is in our fate, we go for that.”

Now 20 years later Rajiv and Sangeeta Garg sum it up: “Today all our four daughters are healthy and well. Our oldest Priya is 20 years old and a beautiful dancer. Nira, the youngest, is five years old and going to kindergarten. The one that is biological – our second one – wishes she was adopted too because she’s the odd one out of the whole bunch!  We have a very fun family.”

The Indian community has often had a hard time in accepting adoption as the equivalent of parenthood since it does away with the prerequisite of ‘blood ties’ in order to be a family. “In adoption you really have to believe this child is yours rather than someone else’s,” says Rajiv.  “That is key. You both really have to believe in the process, because if you have doubts and lack of confidence, you can go through a lot of emotional turbulence.”

Adoption Story: Apoorva and Shreya Patel

From the Gargs we move to Apoorva and Shreya Patel, who recently adopted an 8 month old baby girl from India. Apoorva graduated from Georgia State University and works in software development, while Shreya graduated from Rutgers University in NJ, and is a cyto-technologist working in diagnostics in Atlanta.    .

They were married 10 years before they decided to adopt when they weren’t able to have a child of their own. Nor did they exhaust all the medical options available for, as Apoorva points out, “We were very open to adopting. I had earlier taken a huge pay cut to work in public health in Asia and Africa in the field of global immunizations, and seen so many children who were generally poor or orphaned that it seemed the right thing to do.”

Adoption is still a difficult issue in Indian communities - here three couples tell their stories about adoptiing children from India

Apoorva and Shreya Patel

The process which seems simple enough actually took them a good two years. Says Shreya, “It could have been done sooner.  We had myriad issues: our agency in US lost some documents, some of our time-sensitive documents expired, the orphanage that we eventually adopted from was in the process of renewing their international license, and finally the civil courts in India had a month long recess.”

Indeed, mentally and financially adoption is a grueling process and the paperwork is not easy. Shreya remembers crying once in a while and feeling very frustrated. She understood the reasons for the procedures and that the background checks were for the safeguarding of the children but feels the process could have been speeded up. For instance, instead of all the judges taking a recess at the same time, their timing could be staggered so that business could proceed as usual.

On Mother’s Day, she finally got the news that they had got the NOC, which meant they were almost home with the baby. She got the call at work and broke into tears and her colleagues rejoiced with her on finally becoming a parent. She recalls, “It was a perfect Mother’s Day gift.”

They went out with friends to celebrate but having waited so long, Apoorva was stoic: “Until we had the baby in the US I was celebrating very cautiously because I knew anything could go wrong between now and then.”  It took another three months to get the adoption deed, which is the court paperwork, before they could actually bring the baby home to the US.

Adoption Do’s and Don’ts

Having been through the process themselves and now back home with their beautiful 19-month-old Sanaya, the Patels are helping several other parents who want to adopt. “It can be an emotionally draining experience but absolutely worth it,” says Apoorva. “ So, people should be prepared to wait and spend a lot of emotional energy.  There are times where you have done everything you can and then you just wait – it can be extremely frustrating.”

To make things go smoother, he suggests keeping copies of all documents in case the agency, courier or orphanages lose them. It is also a good idea to study the adoption rules thoroughly – for instance, they learned that a child in an Indian orphanage had to be rejected by three native Indian couples before he could be put up for an international adoption. There are also rules that you cannot communicate directly with an Indian orphanage but have to go through an agency in the country where you live.

The Patels saw interesting reactions to adoption in India and the US.  Friends in India would be almost commiserating instead of congratulating when they learned the couple was adopting. They would console: “It’s OK, it’s OK.” Others were puzzled as to why they were adopting a girl instead of a boy when they had the ability to choose.

In the US, the attitude was very different. Says Shreya: “It’s all been so positive. All our family has been great – very warm and welcoming – my parents absolutely love Sanaya – they were just so happy we were able to get a child. A friend of mine who was visiting India during the adoption process actually visited the orphanage to meet the baby, and here my friends constantly drop in to see Sanaya.”

Adoptions from India: Adoption is still a difficult issue in Indian communities - here three couples tell their stories about adoptiing children from India

The Sarmas with their children

Adoption Story: Ravi and Seshu Sarma

While the Gargs and the Patels adopted children under the age of one, Dr. Ravi and Dr. Seshu Sarma went in for a bigger challenge – adopting an older child. The majority of the Indian children adopted by US couples happen to be under the age of 2 but the Sarmas decided to adopt a four-year-old after their own biological children became teenagers.

“It was something I’d always wanted to do since I was young,” says Seshu, who got married at the age of 20 as a 4th year medical student. She is now an associate professor in Atlanta and both she and her husband Ravi, who is an oncologist, got their training in the US. They have been in Atlanta, GA for 31 years and are very active in the Indian community.

“ We had our children in our 20’s so by the time we were 40 they were grown and we were still young, had energy and resources so we started thinking of giving someone a home who didn’t have one,” she recalls. “Westerners tend to adopt girls and Indians tend to adopt boys but as babies. So older boys get left out because they don’t get adopted easily.”

In spite of their good intentions they almost didn’t get a child to adopt because the judge in his wisdom ruled they already had a boy and girl of their own, and adoptions were to be made only to childless couples.  However, an American family at that time had applied for a girl child and already had two biological daughters of their own. When the judge vetoed the adoption, they sued in the Indian Supreme Court – and won.

So now that a precedent had been set, the orphanage agreed to the adoption by the Sarmas – and they brought home 4-year-old Sriram, who spoke Telegu like them and is from Andhra Pradesh.  This year he will turn sixteen, a typical American teenager, handy with gadgets, but indifferent to success.  This makes it harder on the Sarmas whose older children are high achievers.  She says, “The older ones love him to death, and they go out of their way to help him. Our youngest is extremely bright but his intelligence cannot be measured by tests. He’s a very good kid but strong willed – a typical teenager.”

What advice would she give to those thinking of adoption? “If their heart is in it, they should do it because I have seen several couples who have struggled with adoption – it’s not easy, especially with older children,” she says.  She points out that these children grow up in an orphanage with 50 other kids and the whole concept of a family unit is initially hard for them to understand.  She adds: “Children can become detached when people don’t hug them, sing to them and tell them stories – all the things we do with our kids. In an orphanage a child is just one of fifty.”

For the adopted child there are always so many questions. Seshu recalls her youngest son asking her and Ravi, “I need to ask you something. I know I’m adopted but do I get your genes?”

She told him, “A mother is a mother because she raises a child, not because she gives birth. You sound so much like us, you have our mannerisms – you are what you are because you’ve been raised by us and reflect our upbringing.”   Sriram, she says, is an extremely smart boy but his answer was, “Oh shucks – I was hoping I’d get your genes!”

How do Parents Tell their Children they are Adopted?

And that brings us to the 800 1b gorilla in the room – how do parents tell their children they are adopted? For Shreya and Apoorva, the dilemma was simplified by the online parenting classes they were required to take when they registered with the local agency in Atlanta.  These taught them to tell the child as soon as she could understand, before others tell her, and to celebrate not only her birthday but also the ‘Gotcha’ date. Says Shreya, “I’ve made her a scrapbook and she loves looking at it, at the religious ceremony her grandmother did to welcome her into the house.”

Rajiv Garg goes one step further:  he actually writes his newly-adopted daughters a letter right on the plane as the family flies back from India – and these letters are there for them to savor as they grow up. The older sisters also flew with the family to India when the youngest girl was adopted and so the whole process is a natural one for them. The girls get two celebrations instead of just one – birthdays and the adoption anniversary.

“You have to know and tell them of their past and all of them react differently,” says Sangeeta. “The older one couldn’t care less, the second one has a strong feeling about it and questions, and it’s a good healthy dialogue. It’s part of their life and heritage and something we are very proud of. We have an album – it creates a much trusted environment.”

Adoption, like life in general, has highs and lows but these couples swear by the unmatched happiness it brings. ‘Family’ is probably one of the most beautiful words in the world – yet what makes a family a real family? It is bonds of love nurtured over the years, something much more intangible, more intricate than mere blood ties.

“All families have their challenges and we are no different,” says Rajiv. “It’s been a wonderful journey and I would encourage everyone to experience this because it’s very rewarding to see what one can do.” Often, the experience opens up new avenues and ways of thinking. Rajiv and Sangeeta Garg now run the Creative Kids Academy, a day care and camp facility to prepare children for schooling.

Changing Attitudes Toward Adoption

Over the years the attitude of many in the Indian community has changed toward adoption. For younger people it is not even an issue. In chat rooms and forums, couples talk about adopting in spite of having their own children, and single women are open to adopting on their own. Then there is the whole spectrum of gay couples – all longing to adopt children and start a family. As the definition of ‘family’ changes, we will see many new scenarios.

Many years ago, Rajiv recalls, his parents had initially a traditional perspective on the issue of adoption, emphasizing the importance of having your own biological children to continue the family line.  They were hesitant about the planned adoption, fearing what people would say, but it helped to sit them down and have a dialogue. He says, “Lots of families don’t talk, they get pressurized into society’s comments rather than following their hearts and beliefs. We’ve always felt do what’s right and don’t let society be your controller.”

The bonds grow over the years, especially with the grandparents. In some cases, there is so much blending that family members start looking like one another. The Gargs are often told that their oldest looks like the grandmother, while the youngest looks like the grandfather!

Indian adoptions: Adoption is still a difficult issue in Indian communities - here three couples tell their stories about adoptiing children from India

Apoorva with baby Sanaya: “I still can’t believe she’s in our lives!”

For Apoorva and Shreya, adoption has been absolutely worth the wait and the heartache.  “It can be emotionally draining but the outcome is awesome. Once you have a child you forget about all the frustration you went though just to get that child,” says Shreya.

What’s the best part of the whole experience? “For me it’s the random hug that she gives us just out of nowhere,” she says. “She’ll just come up and kiss you on the leg or the cheek, or come and give you a hug for no reason whatsoever.”

For Apoorva, the joy is in every moment of having their baby daughter with them, even when Sanaya cries, in changing her diaper or even when she throws up. “It’s the whole experience,” he says. “It’s been nine months and I still have to pinch myself that she’s in our lives.”

As for society talking or disapproving of their family or narrow-minded relatives not being comfortable, he laughs:  “My mind tells me I don’t really have to worry about what other people think.  They can tell me how to live my life only when they start paying my mortgage!”

Adoption is still a difficult issue in Indian communities - here three couples tell their stories about adoptiing children from India

The Garg family with Priyanka holding her youngest sister Nira.


Adoption: A Child’s View

Not all adoption stories turn out happily and others reach the happy ending only after a lot of turmoil and angst on the part of the adopted children.  There are children like Tina (name changed) who agonized about her birth mother, going to great lengths to search for her, experimenting with drugs and rebelling – and testing her adoptive parents at every junction. They responded with unconditional love every step of the way, and that turned out to be the magic mantra.  As she grew older, Tina became secure in herself and her family, and stopped searching, content in the love all around her.

Then you have Shalu (name changed) who was adopted at the age of 7 and really put her adopted family through hell, as she tried to find her identity. As a teenager she became an alcoholic and had to drop out of school. Her parents stood by her, sending her to Alcoholics Anonymous, and now as a young adult, she is finally fine and adjusted to her family.

Indeed, stories vary from child to child and family to family. Here Priyanka, daughter of Rajiv Garg and Sangeeta Jain shares her view of adoption.


Priyanka’s Story

“My name is Priyanka Garg Jain and I am now 20 years old.  My dad Rajiv Garg and my mom Sangeeta Jain adopted me from Bombay when I was 7 months old.  Of course I don’t remember January 27th 1992, the day when my parents adopted me.  However, I along with my 3 younger sisters celebrate this precious day each year with great pride.  My mom always gets teary-eyed reminiscing about it.  Together we page through my adoption album, which contains pictures, letters, adoption papers and many memories.

I have never felt the need to find my birth parents nor the desire to search for my roots somewhere in Bombay.  My parents took me to the neighborhood where my foster home was when I was 9 years old.  Not for once did I reflect back on my past life.  My heart and soul are warmly content, knowing I am loved by the only family I have ever known.

On the other hand, my younger sister Sonya, who is thirteen, struggles each year on her adoption anniversary with the thought of not knowing anything about her birth identity.  She gets quite emotional wondering where her birth parents are.  I hold her and comfort her telling her how happy I am and that we all love her.   I guess I consider myself very lucky that I am not consumed nor haunted by the same thoughts that come to Sonya’s mind.

The reason I feel so connected to my family is because we all look alike.  My facial features resemble that of my Nani, my maternal grandmother.  I adore my grand parents because they have truly given me unconditional love that only grandparents can give.  People who meet me and my sister Sonali for the first time, often ask if we are twins.   When asked if we are twins,  I simply smile and reply, “No,  I am older and smarter”.   All of us have been brought up alike with me leading the way.  Since the age of five, our parents have taken all of us for lessons in skating, karate, art, swimming, tennis, golf, sailing, and Kathak dance.  My sisters look up to me, which makes me realize and appreciate the loving family I have.

In conclusion, it doesn’t matter if you are adopted or biological, you have to have the sense that you are accepted, loved and you belong in a family.   I could not ask for anything more since I have everything that I could possibly want.”

(C) Lavina Melwani

This story first appeared in Khabar magazine


Bringing Baby Home

Tips for Adoptive Parents.

The Process

Because India is party to the Hague Adoption Convention, adoptions from India must follow a specific process designed to meet the Convention’s requirements. This process will follow six primary steps. You must complete these steps in the following order so that your adoption meets all necessary legal requirements.

  1. Choose an Adoption Service Provider
  2. Apply to be Found Eligible to Adopt
  3. Be Matched with a Child
  4. Apply for the child to be found Eligible for Adoption
  5. Adopt the Child (or Gain Legal Custody) in India
  6. Bring Your Child Home

India‘s Adoption Authority
Central Adoption Resource Agency (CARA)

Everything You wanted to Know About Adoption – But were Afraid to Ask

Adoption from A to Z from the state department:

A Tip for Travelers

Stay in touch when you head overseas…

If traveling abroad during the adoption process, we encourage you to register your trip with the Department of State. Travel registration makes it possible to contact you if necessary. Whether there’s a family emergency in the United States, or a crisis in the country you’re visiting, registration assists the U.S. Embassy or Consulate in reaching you.

Registration is free and can be done online

Useful Sites for Adoptive Parents


■ U.S. Department of State, Office of Children’s Issues: Intercountry Adoption

homepage http://Adoption.State.Gov

■ U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services homepage

■ Child Welfare Information Gateway

■ Hague Conference on Private International Law

Other links which may provide information of interest to Prospective

Adoptive Parents include:

■ Adoptive Families Magazine

■ Adoptive Parents Committee

■ Center for Adoption Support and Education (CASE)

■ Center for Parent Education and Family Support

■ Families Adopting in Response (FAIR)

■ International Adoption Center

■ The Joint Council on International Children’s Services (JCICS)

■ National Council For Adoption (NCFA)

■ North American Council on Adoptable Children (NACAC)

Other Helpful Links:

■ The American Academy of Adoption Attorneys (AAAA)

■ The Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute

Related Posts:



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About Author

Lavina Melwani is a New York-based journalist who writes for several international publications. [email protected] & @lassiwithlavina Sign up for the free newsletter to get your dose of Lassi!


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  2. My name is Sonia – I’m from Delhi, India
    I have 5 born babies to search parents to adopt so please call me -.
    Thank you

  3. Sorry, Sonia – I cannot give your phone number here nor exchange this kind of information. People do need to go through the right agencies as acquiring a baby is serious business.

  4. I liked your article.
    Is there a way I can get in touch with any of the couples mentioned above (by email) as I needed additional information with regards to adopting from India when you already have a biological of your own.
    The overall information on websites is so overwhelming -it would be nice to talk to to someone who has done it.


  5. Informative article Lavina. Would it be possible for you to put me in touch with Apoorva and Shreya Patel? I am very much interested in their story and am interested in starting my own adoption journey and could use some guidance. Thank you! – SP

  6. Beatriz Salazar on

    Hello Lavina, your article was very informative and I could not help feeling emotional reading all these great stories. I was wondering if it was possible to get in contact with Apoorva and Shreya Patel? It would be very helpful to receive some guidance on the adoption process from them. Thank you!

  7. Hi Lavina, Thanks for writing the stories of adoption. Would you please help me to give contact info of Shreya Patel and other parents ? I am looking to adopt a baby from India. Thanks a bunch –Shilpa

  8. Hi,

    My husband and I are starting the process of adopting a baby from India. I was hoping you can put me in touch with Shreya Patel, if she is willing to talk to me about the process. Thanks so much


  9. Hi Lavina, Thanks for writing the stories of adoption. We want new-born female child. We have started procedure but lots query in mind. Can YOu just help us finding the right one?

  10. Yogendra, I am not an expert on adoption – I just documented the stories of these people. There are several links at the end of the story. You could start by exploring some of those, depending on where you are living.
    Wish you success in your search for a daughter.